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Researchers from the University of South Australia have established a direct link between low levels of vitamin D and chronic inflammation, which can contribute to a wide range of diseases including type 2 diabetes, heart disease and autoimmune problems.

The link provides an important biomarker to identify people at high risk of developing chronic illnesses with an inflammatory component.

The study examined the genetic data of 294,970 participants in the UK Biobank to show the association between vitamin D and C-reactive protein levels, an indicator of inflammation.

According to lead researcher, UniSA’s Dr Ang Zhou, the findings suggest boosting vitamin D levels in people with a deficiency could reduce chronic inflammation.

“Inflammation is your body’s way of protecting your tissues if you’ve been injured or have an infection,” Dr Zhou explains.

“High levels of C-reactive protein are generated by the liver in response to inflammation, so when your body is experiencing chronic inflammation, it also shows higher levels of C-reactive protein.

“This study examined vitamin D and C-reactive proteins and found a one-way relationship between low levels of vitamin D and high levels of C-reactive protein, expressed as inflammation.”

Dr Zhou argues that boosting vitamin D in people with deficiencies may reduce chronic inflammation, helping them avoid a number of related diseases.

Supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council and published in the International Journal of Epidemiology the study also raises the possibility that having adequate vitamin D may mitigate complications arising from obesity and reduce the risk or severity of chronic illnesses with an inflammatory component, such as CVDs, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases.

Senior investigator and Director of UniSA’s Australian Centre for Precision Health, Professor Elina Hyppönen, says the results are important and provide an explanation for some of the reported associations with vitamin D.

“We have repeatedly seen evidence for health benefits for increasing vitamin D concentrations in individuals with very low levels, while for others, there appears to be little to no benefit.” Professor Hyppönen says.

“These findings highlight the importance of avoiding clinical vitamin D deficiency, and provide further evidence for the wide-ranging effects of hormonal vitamin D.”